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Introduction Although Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) operate at very high efficiencies, they do produce heat as a byproduct and this has to be removed if the LED is to operate continuously. As the heat generation in a semi-conductor, such as an LED, happens in the PN ...
Posted on 25/08/2017
Introduction While designing multi-layer Printed Circuit Boards (PCB’s), one of the most basic elements that the engineer must include is the requirement for interconnected traces/planes on one layer to traces/planes on another. The most efficient technique of...
Posted on 28/07/2017
Introduction Manufacturing a multi-layer flex circuit board starts with a base material of copper clad flexible laminate. This is typically an unreinforced film coated with adhesive on both sides, with the outside surfaces covered with a thin sheet of copper. A lami...
Posted on 23/06/2017
Rigid-Flex Circuits The identifying characteristic of a rigid-flex circuit is the presence of one or more sections of the circuit in the form of rigid construction, while the rest of the circuitry is of the flexible type. Conductors are present on both the rigid and...
Why use a Ceramic Base? Many applications need removal of heat from hot spots rather quickly and efficiently, while effectively dissipating it over the entire surface of the PCB. With epoxy-based PCB material such as FR-4, this is impossible, as epoxy has poor therm...
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